The following pests and pathogens that have been modeled using PoPS.
European Grapevine Moth (EGM), Lobesia botrana, causes severe damage to grapevines in its larval form. EGM larvae feed on and damage flowers and berries. This damage then increases grape vulnerability to fungal infections, such as botrytis.... Read more
Grapes and spurge laurel are preferred hosts. It has also been reported on blackberry, gooseberry, currant, olive, cherry, prune, persimmon, kiwi, pomegranate, red clover, carnation, and more.... Read more
European grapevine moth poses a significant threat to California’s grape production. Several California counties are quarantined to attempt to stop the spread. Available management for EGM includes: (1) fruit removal from infested and surrounding grapevines, (2) insecticide control, and (3) mating disruption.
European Grapevine Moth
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Aphthae epizooticae , is a highly infectious and sometimes deadly virus that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including pigs, cattle, and sheep. FMD causes fever, blisters, and lameness in affected animals. During outbreaks, millions of animals can be culled, resulting in large economic losses.... Read more
Pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo, antelope, deer, and bison are affected by FMD.... Read more
Foot and mouth disease is highly infectious and spreads quickly in farm settings. Containment efforts include (1) vaccination, (2) monitoring, (3) quarantines, (4) culling animals, and (5) trade restrictions.
Foot and Mouth Disease
Late Blight, Phytophthora infestans, is an oomycete pathogen that can infect and destroy the leaves, stems, fruits, and tubers of potato and tomato plants. The disease spreads quickly in fields and can result in total crop failure if untreated. It is best known for causing the Irish potato famine of the 1840s. Spores can spread by irrigation, equipment, wind, and rain and can be blown into neighboring field…... Read more
Potato, tomato, petunia, and nightshade.... Read more
Successful management of late blight relies on an integrated approach, including: (1) removing sources of the pathogen and planting only healthy plants; (2) using resistant cultivars; (3) scouting locations where late blight might appear; and (4) using weather forecasting to modify the frequency of fungicide application.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv), Alphacoronavirus , is a coronavirus that affects swine, causing the death of 50-100% of infected piglets. Adult pigs do not generally have mortality. PEDv has been detected in 27 US states.... Read more
PEDv infects pigs.... Read more
PEDv management strategies include (1) disease surveillance, (2) movement tracking, (3) herd monitoring, and (4) epidemiological support.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus
Porcine Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRS), and Betaarterivirus suid 1 , is a viral disease infecting sows and pigs, leading to reproductive failure, pneumonia, and mortality in young animals. PRRS is a global problem. In the US, the cost to the industry is estimated at $664 million per year.... Read more
PRRS infects pigs.... Read more
There is no treatment for PRRS. Prevention of infection is the primary means of control. Commercial vaccines have been licensed and have been effective at controlling outbreaks.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Spotted Lanternfly (SLF), Lycorma delicatula, is an invasive planthopper native to China, India, Vietnam. It was first discovered in Berks County, Pennsylvania and has rapidly spread since. This insect has the potential to adversely impact agricultural crops such as grapes, hops, and hardwoods. Spotted lanternfly can reproduce on many trees and shrubs; however, it has a preference for Tree of Heaven (anot…... Read more
PoPS is being used by the United States Department of Agriculture (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) to understand where the pest is likely to spread and prioritize surveillance and treatment strategies. Penn State University and Extension, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) have joined force…... Read more
SLF threatens many crops and landscape plants including: Almonds, Apples, Apricots, Cherries, Grapes, Hops, Maple Trees, Nectarines, Oak Trees, Peaches, Pine Trees, Plums, Poplar Trees, Sycamore Trees, Walnut Trees, Willow Trees
PoPS forecast of Spotted Lanternfly
Phytophthora ramorum is a water mold pathogen that causes Sudden Oak Death (SOD), Ramorum Leaf Blight, Ramorum Dieback, and Phytophthora Canker Diseases. SOD was first detected in Marin County, CA in 1995, and it was recognized as killing trees in Oregon in 2001. The SOD pathogen affects a wide variety of trees, shrubs, and plants and there is no known cure. The pathogen has killed millions of tanoak and c…... Read more
Multiple organizations, including USDA-APHIS and the Oregon Department of Forestry, are working to stop the spread of <em>P. ramorum</em> through regulations and public outreach programs. Agencies work to limit human-assisted spread of <em>P. ramorum</em> by inspecting nurseries for infected plants and plant material. APHIS has also enacted strict regulations in 1…... Read more
More than 100 plant species can be infected by <em>P. ramorum</em> or facilitate its spread. The host list includes: hardwoods (e.g. coast live oak), softwoods (e.g. Douglas-fir), and landscape plants (e.g. camellia and rhododendron).
Sudden Oak Death
Wheat Stripe Rust (WSR), Puccinia striiformis, is a fungus that causes damage to the leaf of wheat, barley, and some grasses. Rusts have been documented to have the capacity to develop into widespread epidemics. WSR can totally destroy some crop fields, and losses of 40% are common. WSR is primarily dispersed by wind. It is the most common cereal rust in the Pacific Northwest US.... Read more
Wheat Stripe Rust affects wheat, barley, barberry, and some grasses.... Read more
Wheat Stripe Rust is currently being managed by (1) using resistant varieties, (2) fungicide seed treatments and foliar fungicide treatments, and (3) removing volunteer wheat and grass weeds that could serve as a source of the fungus.
Wheat Stripe Rust